Tag: moral theory

Does Morality Have a Purpose?

Morality is the principles of good/bad right/wrong behaviour, but what is the purpose of these rules? To answer this question we have to look back and consider how morality came about, and how it served us in the past. We will also have to examine moral theories, past and present, to see how they work and if their purpose is aligned. Morality, the wonder years If we consider early stages in our evolution, we struggled a lot more to survive…


Moral Subjectivism and Relativism – Fresh AiR – S02:E02:C11

Tonight we embark on our last chapter of specific moral theories and our penultimate chapter of episode 2. Moral Subjectivism and Relativism We discuss a number of topics around subjective and relative morality. What these terms actually mean. What it would mean if morality was wholly subjective or wholly relative. Common misconceptions folks have about relativism and subjectivism. Further Reading and Related Articles SEP: Moral Relativism Objective / Subjective Morals and Morality On Morality: Defining our Terms On Morality: Subjective…


Rule Utilitarianism – Fresh AiR – S02:E02:C08

What is Rule Utilitarianism? Rule Utilitarianism is just like Act Utilitarianism but with a twist. It is deontological. That means that following the rules are what is important regardless of the consequences. So why is a typically consequentialist brand, utilitarianism, under the banner of deontology? How does that work? What are the differences? Find Out, Listen NOW! Further Reading Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Rule ConsequentialismWikipedia: Rule UtilitarianismInternet Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Utilitarianism, Act and Rule Martin, R. (2008) ‘Two Concepts of…


Kantianism – Fresh AiR – S02:E02:C07

What is Kantianism? Kantianism or Kantian Ethics is the moral theory coined by Immanuel Kant. It is our first deontological moral theory, but it is not absolutely deontological as it builds its rules based on absolute consequences. e.g. if everyone stole from everyone, if everyone lied all the time, if everyone killed, if everyone raped etc. So how does this stand up to scrutiny? How would a Kantian answer some of the moral dilemmas? Find Out tonight! Further Reading Stanford…


Welfarism – Fresh AiR – S02:E02:C06

What is Welfarism? Welfarism is our next consequentialist moral theory, following on from last week’s Preference Satisfaction Utilitarianism. Welfarism is our last consequentialist moral theory in the series, but how does it differ from the others? What are its strengths and weaknesses? What else do we need to know about it? Find out tonight on Fresh AiR! Further Reading Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ‘Consequentialism’ Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: ‘Welfarism’, Well-BeingBlackburn, S. (2003) Ethics: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford, Oxford University…


Preference Satisfaction Utilitarianism – Fresh AiR – S02:E02:C05

Preference Satisfaction Utilitarianism Our next moral theory is Preference Satisfaction Utilitarianism, which is also a consequentialist moral theory. It is similar to Act utilitarianism but holds a few differences as well, and is a much newer theory. What is Preference Satisfaction Utilitarianism? How does it differ to Act Utilitarianism? What are the problems it has? What things should be valued even if they are not by an individual? What is the problem with words like should? What do we mean…